Rethinking PhD Thesis Introductions from Higher Education Perspective: Using the CARS Model


  • Dr. Nasreen Hussain Nasreen Hussain*, Department of Education, Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan. E-Mail:
  • Mahwish Baassit Hussain Education Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan. E-Mail:
  • Dr. Muhammad Asif Khan Department of Education, Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan. E-Mail:


academic writing, CARS model, higher education, introduction chapter, PhD Thesis


This research study analyzed the Introduction chapters of PhD theses in education that were available on the Higher Education Commission (HEC). Pakistan repository website to find out the level of academic writing skills and organizational abilities of the scholars. Eight PhD theses in the field of education were chosen at random from Pakistan's three provinces and the capital city, and two supervisors were interviewed for triangulation. To give voice and meaning to the academic work, qualitative content-document analysis was used. Create a-Research-Space (CARS) framework developed by Swales (1990) was deployed as the basis of data analysis. Introduction chapters were examined in relation to the thesis as a whole to study the CARS moves and steps used by the scholars. In addition, two colleagues who were teaching at prestigious universities and also supervised PhD scholars were interviewed to verify and triangulate the trends that had emerged through the content analysis. The data show that the sparse moves and steps utilized in few of the eight theses have an impact on the quality of academic writing, thesis production, and on the worth of the research. The findings will assist supervisors as well as research students in the region to understand and implement suitable moves during the supervision process and engage in long-term academic writing.


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How to Cite

Dr. Nasreen Hussain, Mahwish Baassit Hussain, & Dr. Muhammad Asif Khan. (2023). Rethinking PhD Thesis Introductions from Higher Education Perspective: Using the CARS Model. Archives of Educational Studies (ARES), 2(2), 184–204. Retrieved from