Schools in Nigeria: An Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Sokoto State


  • Yusuf Sarkingobir Lecturer, Department of Environmental Education, Shehu Shagari University of Education Sokoto, Nigeria. E-Mail:
  • Abbas Abubakar Hiliya Lecturer, Department of Educational Management, Shehu Shagari University of Education Sokoto, Nigeria. E-Mail:
  • Kabiru Umar Lecturer, Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria. E-Mail:


Infectious diseases, chronic diseases, toilets,, malnutrition


The aim of this study is to assess the level of water, sanitation, and hygiene services in public secondary schools in Sokoto, state Nigeria using a survey study design of 120 student-teacher respondents determined using Raosoft Calculator. The study design was descriptive survey that allows the researcher to have an in-depth understanding of perception of the respondent. The outcome of water services supplies at public secondary schools in Sokoto state, Nigeria divulged an overall basic service as 25.0%, the limited services recorded are 25.0%, and no services were recorded in 50.0% of the schools. Survey on level of sanitation has shown that 40.0% have basic sanitation, 20.0% have limited sanitation, and 40.0% have no sanitation services at all. The result showing the level of hygiene services indicates that, the secondary schools surveyed have 8.3% hygiene services, 25.0% have limited hygiene services, and 66.7% of the schools have no hygiene services at all. From this study, it has indicated that there are significantly poor wash services in public secondary schools in the state, and in turn could pose public health problems to the school actors (especially the youngsters, girls and women teachers), the surrounding public, and the entire society at large..




Abubakar, A., Muhammad, A.A., Shagari K.U., & Sani, S., (2022). An investigation of the causes of dropout among female student in some selected secondary school in sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering, Management and Humanities, 3(3), 190-194.

Abubakar, A.U., & Raji, I.A. (2021). Status of public primary schools: Safety, health service provision and environmental health facilities in Sokoto Metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health,19 (11), 22-31.

Azuogu, V.C., Ilo, C.I., Nwimo, I.O., Azuogu, N. B., & Onwunaka, C. (2016). Extent of handwashing practice among secondary school students I Ebonyi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Education, Learning, and Development, 4 (7), 11-22.

Bello, M.B., Daramola, D.S., Yusuf, A., & Amali, I.O., (2017). An evaluation of access to universal basic education in sokoto state, Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of educators and Education, 32, 61-72.

Bello, Y.S., Adamu, A.A., Sarkingobir, Y., & Maiakwai, M. (2022). Negative effects of open defecation on school education in Nigeria. Global Journal of Research in Medical sciences, 2(2),33-36.

Boyi, A.M. (2013). Education and sustainable national development in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(8), 147-152.

Dange, A.S., & Dange, Z.U. (2019). Investigation into the causes and effects of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Sokoto Metropolis: Implications for counselling. The Beam; Journal of arts and Science, 12(1), 1-12.

Gado, M.A., & Alkammawa, H.L. (2017). Primary education as a means of achieving sustainable development; An assessment of Universal Basic education(UBE)program in Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Humanities and Social sciences, 2(9), 790-795.

Ibrahim, Y., Arshad, R., & Salleh, D. (2017). Stakeholder perceptions of secondary education quality in sokoto state, Nigeria. Quality Assurance in Education, 25(2), 248-267.

Inuwa, A.A. & Yusof, N. M. (2012). Teachers challenges in Nigerian public secondary schools’ climate: implications on students’ dropouts. Science journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5(21), 147-157.

Inuwa, A.A. & Yusof, N. M. (2014). Review of parental and school climate factors instrument for secondary schools in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(21), 147-157.

Jiya, F.B., Jiya, N.M., Ibitoye, P.K., Umar, K. A., Adamu, A., & Isezuo, K.O. (2020). School health services in Sokoto town, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 19(4), 44-50.

Kanayochukwu, E., Dogo, B., Akinmumi, O.O., Oluwafemi, A.T., Ajibuah, J., Mwanret, D., & Queen, S., (2020). Assessment of the conditions of educational facilities in selected local government areas in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Researches Reviews of the Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, 49(1), 81-98.

Kasarawa, A.B. Salau I.A., & Shehu K., (2017). Microbial quality of nonregistered table water sold in Sokoto Metropolis Northwestern Nigeria. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 6(03), 007-011.

Magami, I.M. and Ibrahim, S. (2016). Gender disparity in water policy decision-making and status of water supply in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. The Journal of Social Sciences, 2(4), 77-81.

Mustapha, M., Okareh, O.T., Sridhar, M.K. C., & M.M. Aliyu (2022). Households awareness and practices on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in arid region of Northwestern Nigeria-Sokoto state. West African Journal of applied Ecology, 30(2), 47-66.

Mustapha, M., Okareh, O.T., Sridhar, M.K.C., & Aliyu, M.M. (2022). Households awareness and practices on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in an arid region of Northwestern Nigeria-Sokoto state. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(2), 47-66.

Nair, G.N. (2022). New education policy 2020 and the contested terrain of language: On public policy education. Archives of Educational Studies, 2(1), 19-25.

Nanbak, J.A. (2020). An analysis of secondary education in Nigeria: A need for rethinking in a philosophical perspective. BSUJEM, 2(1), 1-6.

Nasiru, B.S. (2015). Perception of youth on substance abuse in Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria. [Msc Thesis, University of Legon Ghana].

Ogbuehi, D., Osia-Prince, G.N., & George, F.F. (2020). Availability and utilization of sanitary facilities in selected secondary schools in Yenagoa, Bayelsa state. International Journal of Innovative Healthcare Research, 8(4), 9-16.

Okediji, H. (2015). The role of education in fostering peace and unity in Nigeria between 1914-1938. History Research, 5(3), 156-168.

Olatunji, R.W., & Thanny, N.T. (2020). Availability and adequacy of WASH facilities in secondary schools in Lagos state, Nigeria. E3S Web of Conferences, 211(01023), 1-8. http://10.1051/e3sconf/202021101023.

Olukami, D. (2013). Assessment of WASH program in public secondary schools in Southern-Western Nigeria. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 222-228.

Salihu, M., Shawai, S.A., Shamsuddin, I.M. (2017). Effect and control of water pollution a panacea to national Development. International Journal of environmental Chemistry, 1(2), 23-27.

Shehu, K., Salau, I. A., Kasarawa, A. B. And Umar, A. I (2014). Study on Fungi associated with metropolitan waste water used for irrigation on soil in sokoto metropolis. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(6), 148-151.

Sifawa, B.U., & Muhammad, A. (2014). Improving rural water supply and sanitation through community participation and management for diseases prevention in Sokoto state. International of Comparative Studies in International Relations and Development, 3(1), 123-131.

Sridhar, M.K.C., Okareh, O.T., & Mustapha, M. (2020). Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on water, sanitation, and hygiene in Some selected LGAS in Kaduna state, NorthWestern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Public health, 2020(6532512),1-12.

Suleiman, A.U., Musa, M., Hadi, B.A., H.A., Kwazo (2021). Phytoremediation of selected heavy metals in simulated water using Alage (Spirogyra spp). International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science, 6(2), 86-92.

Toleubrkov, B., Bolatova, Z., & Stafstrom, M. (2022). Assessing access to WASH in urban schools during COVID-19in Kazakhstan; case study of central Kazakhstan. International Journal of Environmental research and Public Health, 19(6438), 1-19.

Umar A.I., Umar, R.A., Wasagu, R.S.U., & Oche M.O. (2017). Assessment of Iodine levels of Secondary Schools Girls in Sokoto State Nigeria. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science, 2(1), 020–027.

Umar, A.I., Labbo, A. M., Sumayya, A.A. Zainab, H.B., Sarkingobir, Y. Umar, A.I., & Dikko, M. (2021). Effects of Some Goitrogens on Iodine distributions in Pipe-borne Water, Borehole Water and Well Water of Sokoto State, Nigeria. International journal of Pure and Applied Science 21 (9), 29 – 40.

Winter, J.C., Damstadt, G.L., Lee, S.J., & Davis, J. (2021). The potential of school-based WASH programming to support children as agents of change in rural Zambian households. BMC Public Health, 21(1812),1-13.

Yahaya, T. Doherty, V.F. Akinola, O.S. & Shamsudden, A. (2019). Heavy metal profiles and microbiological counts of selected sachet water brands in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis, Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science, 21(1), 229-234.

Yamma, A.M., & Izom, D.J. (2018). Education policy in Nigeria and the genesis of universal basic education (UBE), 1999-2018. Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, 6(3), 15-32.

Yarima, S.A., Maishanu, S.Z., Yarima, U.A. (2021). Knowledge, attitude and practice of users towards water usage in IUIU Main Campus, Mbale. International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(2),44-51.

Yarima, S.A., Maishanu, S.Z., Yarima, U.A. (2021). Knowledge, attitude and practice of users towards water usage in IUIU Main Campus, Mbale. International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(2),44-51.




How to Cite

Yusuf Sarkingobir, Abbas Abubakar Hiliya, & Kabiru Umar. (2023). Schools in Nigeria: An Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Sokoto State. ARCHIVES OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES (ARES), 2(2), 223–242. Retrieved from