Academic Stress and Self-Harming Behavior among School Children: A Cross-Sectional and Correlational Study
Keywords:Perceived Parenting, Academic Stress , Deliberate Self harm
The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between academic stress and self-harming behavior among school children. A sample size of 800 school children was recruited for this purpose while keeping the number of private and government students constant. Parental practices comprised of nurturance, guidance, control and permissiveness. The correlational analyses indicated a positive relationship between academic stress and self-harming behavior. Apart from this, one-way analyses and independent sample t-tests also generated comparisons of academic stress and self-harming behavior with other demographic variables. The study has implications for school administration, parents and mental health professionals for providing adequate counseling and therapeutic strategies for combating this prevalent phenomenon. This study calls for attention to the stigma surrounding deliberate self-harm and the lack of avenues available for students to turn to for help.
Adrian, M., Zeman, J., Erdley, C., Lisa, L., & Sim, L. (2011). Emotional dysregulation and interpersonal difficulties as risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescent girls. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 39(3), 389-400.
Andover MS, Gibb BE: Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Res 2010, 178:101-105.
Bergen H, Hawton K, Webb R, et al. Alcohol-related mortality following self-harm: a multicentre cohort study. JRSM Open 2014; 5: 1–11.
Brausch, A. M., & Gutierrez, P. M. (2010). Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(3), 233-242.
Butkowsky, I. S., & Willows, D. M. (1980). Cognitive-motivational characteristics of children varying in reading ability: Evidence for learned helplessness in poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(3), 408.
Cavanagh JT, Carson AJ, Sharpe M, Lawrie SM: Psychological autopsy studies of suicide: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2003; 33:395–405
Chao, R. K. (2001). Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans. Child development, 72(6), 1832-1843.
Daine K, Hawton K, Singaravelu V, Stewart A, Simkin S, Montgomery S. The power of the web: a systematic review of studies if the influence of the internet on self-harm and suicide in young people. Plos One 2013; 8: e77555
Deb, S., Strodl, E., & Sun, J. (2014). Academic-related stress among private secondary school students in India. Asian Education and Development Studies, 3(2), 118-134.
Evans, R., & Hurrell, C. (2016). The role of schools in children and young people’s self-harm and suicide: systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research. BMC public health, 16(1), 401.
Glaskow, K.L., Dornbusch, S.M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L. and Ritter, P.L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents’ attributions and educational outcomes in nine heterogenous high schools. Child Development, 68, 507-529.
Gloria AM, Ho TA (2003) Environmental, social, and psychological experiences of Asian- American undergraduates: examining issues of academic persistence. J Counsel Dev 81:93–106
Gratz, K. L., & Chapman, A. L. (2007). The role of emotional responding and childhood maltreatment in the development and maintenance of deliberate self-harm among male undergraduates. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(1), 1.
Harnish, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Valente, E., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1995). Mother‐child interaction quality as a partial mediator of the roles of maternal depressive symptomatology and socioeconomic status in the development of child behavior problems. Conduct problems prevention research group. Child development, 66(3), 739-753.
Hawton, K., Saunders, K. E., & O'Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. The Lancet, 379(9834), 2373-2382.
Hesketh, T., & Ding, Q. J. (2005). Anxiety and depression in adolescents in urban and rural China. Psychological Reports, 96, 435–444. doi:10.2466/pr0.96.2.435-444.
Hilt, L., Cha, C., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self Injury in young adolescent girls: Moderators of the distress Function relationship. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 63–71.
Jones, R. W. (1993). Gender-specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. Psychological Reports, 72(3), 739-743.
Juon H, Nam JJ, Ensminger ME (1994) Epidemiology of suicidal behavior among Korean adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatr Allied Disciplin 35:663–677
Kao, G. (2004). Parental influences on the educational outcomes of immigrant youth. International Migration Review, 38(2), 427-449.
Khokher, S., & Khan, M. M. (2005). Suicidal ideation in Pakistani college students. Crisis, 26(3), 125-127.
Klonsky ED: The functions of deliberate self-injury: A review of the evidence. Clin Psychol Rev 2007, 27:226-239.
Kouzma, N. M., & Kennedy, G. A. (2004). Self-reported sources of stress in senior high school students. Psychological reports, 94(1), 314-316.
Malik, F., & Shujja, S. (2013). Emotional intelligence and academic achievement: Implications for children’s performance in schools. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 39(1), 51-59.
Misra, R., McKean, M., West, S., & Russo, T. (2000). Academic stress of college students: Comparison of student and faculty perceptions. College Student Journal, 34(2).
Nelson, R.E., Crawford. B (1990) Suicide among elementary school-aged children. Elemen School Guidance Counsel 25:123–128.
Nock, M. K. (2009). Why do people hurt themselves? New insights into the nature and functions of self-injury. Current directions in psychological science, 18(2), 78-83.
Nock, M. K., Joiner Jr, T. E., Gordon, K. H., Lloyd-Richardson, E., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry research, 144(1), 65-72.
Nurmi, J. E., Onatsu, T., & Haavisto, T. (1995). Underachievers′ Cognitive and Behavioural Strategies-Self-Handicapping at School. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(2), 188-200.
O’Loughlin, S., & Sherwood, J. (2005). A 20-year review of trends in deliberate self-harm in a British town, 1981–2000. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 446–453.
Pong, S. L., Hao, L., & Gardner, E. (2005). The roles of parenting styles and social capital in the school performance of immigrant Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Social Science Quarterly, 86(4), 928-950.
Ross, S., & Heath, N. (2002). A study of the frequency of self-mutilation in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 67-77.
Simm, R., Roen, K., & Daiches, A. (2008). Educational professionals' experiences of self‐harm in primary school children:‘You don't really believe, unless you see it’. Oxford Review of Education, 34(2), 253-269.
Simm, R., Roen, K., & Daiches, A. (2010). Primary school children and self harm: the emotional impact upon education professionals, and their understandings of why children self harm and how this is managed. Oxford Review of Education, 36(6), 677-692.
Smith, M., Calam, R., & Bolton, C. (2009). Psychological factors linked to self-reported depression symptoms in late adolescence. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(1), 73-85.
Snodgrass, D. (1991). The parent connection. Adolescence, 26, 83-87.
Toero K, Nagy A, Sawaguchi T, Sawaguchi A, Sotonyi P (2001) Characteristics of suicide among children and adolescents in Budapest. Pediatr Int 43:368–371
Verma, S. Sharma, D., & Larson, R. W., 2002, School stress in India: Effects on time and daily emotions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(6), 500-508.
Wenz-Gross, M., & Siperstein, G. N., 1997, Importance of social support in the adjustment of children with learning problems. Exceptional Children, 63, 183-193.
Wu, F., & Qi, S. (2006). Longitudinal effects of parenting on children's academic achievement in African American families. The Journal of Negro Education, 415-429.
Yeh CJ, Huang K (1996) The collectivistic nature of ethnic identity development among Asian-American college students. Adolescence 31:645–662.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Archives of Educational Studies (ARES), published by Department of Educational Studies, University of Okara, Pakistan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/